It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. Add an Observation. SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes. David McKay, New York. Taraxacum officinale Fragaria indica Androsace rotundifolia.  It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. , Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball; other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed, swine's snout, white endive, and wild endive. ceratophorum) is native there.. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. PAKISTAN PLANT DATABASE. Flowering nearly year-round (fall–spring, south; spring or summer, north). Watsonia, Suppl. Here, we show that the recurved phyllaries of an agamospermous hybrid dandelion, Taraxacum japonicum × officinale, function as a physical barrier to slug florivory. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. [in Japanese with an English abstract] Soest J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). The rationale for herbalists’ choice of diuretic therapy for a woman with hypertension and edema is understandable.  When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. Fl. Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. Dandelion is on the FDA's list of safe foods and is approved by the Council of Europe. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), leaf or root, is the most common herb recommended for this purpose. Specimens not closely corresponding to the descriptions given here can only be identified to the appropriate section. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. yellow, Jan to Dec. Weed of lawns, roadsides & waste places. Shogran ValleyIJSER. 23. Plants (1–)5–40(–60) cm; taproots seldom branched. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan. Aarbok 1923-1924(6): 29. The family Asteraceae, best represented by the species of Taraxacum officinale, is known world wide for its manifold uses.It is widely used to cure kidney disease, swelling, skin problems, heart burn, eye inflammation, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal complaints, warts, liver/gallbladder problems, hepatitis B, cancer, etc., and widely used in modern medicine.  It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions, and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. 3. Often damp low places, lawns, roadsides, waste grounds, disturbed banks and shores; 0–2000+ m; introduced; Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. , T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. 19, 20 and 21 Page 7, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243. Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a well-known medicinal plant that grows naturally in Europe, North and South America and Asia. Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties. A note on the periodicity of leaf-form in Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Rosetted perennial, herb, 0.05-0.25 m high. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. Khan MI, 1973. , T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' Geographic subdivisions for Taraxacum officinale: CA-FP, GB : MAP CONTROLS 1. Grierson & Springate within 'Flora of Bhutan' Vol 2 Part 3 (2001) observed, "Taraxacum in our area consists of sexually producing and apomictic taxa. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries.  A. Schaal 1990; J. C. Lyman and N. C. Ellstrand 1998; O. T. Solbrig 1971; R. J. Taylor 1987), but results of those studies did not lead to the recognition of microspecies. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. 1922. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. 1925. 117. 2. Taraxacum officinale is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft) at a fast rate.  It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. The latter in particular are poorly understood at present. 2n = 24, 40, [16, 32]. palustre Blytt; T. sylvanicum R. Doll. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. Young leaves and inflorescences are used as ingredients in salads and stir-fries. Landolt 1991: 2615 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. Treatments in Other Floras @ www.efloras.org W3TROPICOS The typification by A. J. Richards (1985) would leave the common dandelion of both Europe and North America without a valid name (J. Kirschner and J. Štepánek 1987). Index synonymique 1996: 413100 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. SEARS, P. B. Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. , T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:, Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. Anatomy of regenerating root segments of Taraxacum officinale Web. Calyculi of 12–18, reflexed, sometimes ± glaucous, lanceolate bractlets in 2 series, 6–12 × 2.8–3.5 mm, margins very narrowly white-scarious, sometimes villous-ciliate distally, apices acuminate, hornless. The published Flora of Pakistan is a comprehensive inventory of the plants of Pakistan, the first modern flora of more than 6,000 species from a large, relatively poorly known region of South Asia. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. Assessment report on Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg., radix cum herba . Tax. This Pakistan Plant Database (PPD) includes all information published in the Flora volumes already in print in a searchable web-based format. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. Taraxacum officinale is the most widespread dandelion in temperate North America, though its abundance decreases in the arid south. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. Gledhill, David (2008). The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. The Taraxacum flora of the British Isles. ... Pakistan. , The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages, and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. Phyllaries 13–18 in 2 series, lanceolate, 2–2.8 mm wide, margins scarious (proximal 2/3) to narrowly scarious, apices acuminate, erose-scarious, usually hornless (seldom appendaged), callous. It is also the species most commonly used for medicinal and culinary purposes (e.g., E. Small and P. M. Catling 1999). , While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. Efloraofindia is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. The … The research paper published by IJSER journal is about Pharmacological Study of Shogran Valley Flora, Pakistan. Florivores directly decrease the reproductive success of plants by consuming pollen and seeds; thus, plants often have defense mechanisms against florivory. Landolt 1977: 3272 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus, Sp. 1962.  The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 12:310-311. Taraxacum sect. Index synonymique 1996: 413100 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wiggers 1780; Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus 1753.  It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? , Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. Serizawa S. 2007: Taraxacum maruyamanum (Asteraceae) is a distinct species. , The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. , Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. 2: 798. Dandelion is a source of various nutrients and biologically active substances and its root and leaves contain vitamins (A, K, C and B-complex), minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron), micronutrients, fibre, lecithin and choline. [verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. We allowed Lehmannia valentiana, a European slug naturalized in … Specimens of Taraxacum officinale with deeply lobed leaves are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of T. erythrospermum when fruits are missing (see also R. J. Taylor 1987). – Wentia 10.  The name "blowball" has also been used.. Properties. 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zu Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wiggers, s.l.. Plants medium-sized or robust. , Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. Taraxacum. Ume Ummara, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis, Altaf Ahmed Dasti . In northeastern North America, Taraxacum officinale and T. lapponicum often are confused, which has led to reports of the common dandelion farther north than I have been able to verify (it has yet to be collected from the Nunavik region of Quebec, for instance). Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Common dandelion, Dandelion, Red seeded dandelion Taraxacum officinale, a dicot, is a perennial herb that is not ... Search efloras.org (Flora of North America) Photos on PlantID.net / Google Images. Herbal substance(s) (binomial scientific name of the plant, including plant part) Corresponding Author. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. Brief Description Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 18 June 1997. The fruits, called cypselae, range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. Taraxacum pannucium Taraxacum pannucium Dahlstedt, Bergens Mus. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Compositae-Lactuceae) is a group of highly invasive wild plants with worldwide distribution.Taraxacum species dominate in towns, along roadsides, shores of conduits and in many other rural sites. 55: 29-32. The chief constituents of Dandelion root are Taraxacin, acrystalline and Taraxacerin, an acrid resin, with Inulin (a sort of sugar which replaces starch in many of the Dandelion family, Compositae), gluten, gum …  Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. Usually, however, early leaves of the former are much less deeply lobed than those of the latter, which are more consistently lacerate throughout development, though broadly winged initially. Taraxacum species Taraxacum officinale Name Synonyms Chondrilla taraxacum (L.) Stokes Crepis taraxacum (L.) Stokes, 1787 Leontodon taraxacum L. Taraxacum dens-leonis subsp. , Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. FNA Vol. , Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. Leaves 20+, horizontal to erect; petioles ± narrowly winged; blades oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate (often runcinate), (4–)5–45 × (0.7–)1–10 cm, bases attenuate to narrowly cuneate, margins usually shallowly to deeply lobed to lacerate or toothed, lobes retrorse, broadly to narrowly triangular to nearly lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate, terminals ± as large as distal laterals, ultimate margins toothed or entire (secondary lobules irregular, perpendicular to retrorse), teeth minute to pronounced apices acute to acuminate or obtuse, faces glabrous or sparsely villous (commonly on midveins). For the time being, with the nomenclatural situation still not resolved, I am following traditional usage of the name Taraxacum officinale. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.. The current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic Tharakhchakon, or from the Greek Tarraxos. – J. Phytogeogr. It may be found in combination with nervines and uterine tonics. , The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. Cambridge University Press. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. , The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes. Pl. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS‐1 cells. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. 1753; Taraxacum officinale var. Flora, Pakistan. .  It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. IPNI, Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. Cypselae olivaceous or olive-brown, or straw-colored to grayish, bodies oblanceoloid, (2–)2.5–2.8(–4) mm, cones shortly terete, 0.5–0.9 mm, beaks slender, 7–9 mm, ribs 4–12, sharp, faces proximally smooth to ± tuberculate, muricate in distal 1/3; pappi white to sordid, 5–6(–8) mm. Phenotypic and genotypic variation of this species have been studied in North America (L. M. King 1993; King and B. Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. Introduction. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of NepalFlora of MissouriFlora of Taiwan Checklist  Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi-Pakistan MUHAMMAD ZAFAR, MUSHTAQ AHMAD AND MIR AJAB KHAN1 ... Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale …  Rudenskaya et al. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head.  The flowers are used to make dandelion wine, the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. It has been used as a tonic, to treat rheumatic problems, and as a blood purifier. ; Europe; also introduced in Mexico; introduced nearly worldwide. Blanched hearts (obtained by earthing up or tying the leaves together) are also eaten. Other Databases Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called " dandelion "), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The characters in the key above help separate the two taxa.  The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. Khan MI, 1969. Regeneration in relation to root size in Taraxacum officinale. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. , While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo. Consortium of California Herbaria 2. , Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia, and was originally imported to America as a food crop. Taxonomic notes: The name T. officinale is the earliest applied to the section Taraxacum, which comprises an aggregate of numerous microspecies in Europe; it is not known from which of these the Australian populations have been derived.  Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 9, September-2013 1419 . Derived from the wild or grown on a small scale as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute 32! Triploid apomicts is strongly reduced wild or grown on a small scale as a blood purifier species have been in!, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243 coffee substitute ) found that Taraxalisin a... Called florets, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Research! In Mexico ; introduced nearly worldwide 19, 20 and 21 Page 7, 239, 240,,... 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