The following are the cities in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, which have a population of 1 lakh and above (city / corporation area only). Contents: Subdivision. of Modern Indian History; St. Paul's Press Training School, 1964. Tamil Nadu has a total population of 81.5 million, making it the seventh most populous state in India. Hinduism in Tamil Nadu finds its earliest literary mention in the Sangam literature dated to the 5th century BCE. Tamil Nadu is one of state in India with population of 72147030. The population development of all urban agglomerations and single cities in Tamil Nādu with more than 20,000 inhabitants by census years. The Ramanathapuram Municipality has population of 61,440 of which 30,904 are males while 30,536 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Warrior of Madurai) is a Tamil folk deity popular in southern Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is a well-developed state in South India known for its Hindu temples. Pg.129 Studies in social history:modern India, O. P. Bhatnagar, India. English is used as an additional official language for communication purposes. Erode Population, Caste, Working population Data of Erode in Erode district, Tamil Nadu. Population details. [64] Sangam literature does not mention Somaskanda and references in literature are found in the 7th century Tevaram. The city has a rich history and culture which can be seen in various attractions dotted here. This is followed by another inscription in Uraiyur near Tiruchirapalli which is dated to the 4th century C.E. This empire lasted for almost two centuries till the defeat of Vijayanagara in the Battle of Talikota in 1565. When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. Both parties are populist with a generally social democratic orientation. The population of Chennai is 10.64 million people. Pg.57 The history of the Vijayanagar Empire, Volume 1; M. H. Rāma Sharma, Popular Prakashan, 1978. [47] The cult of Skanda disappeared during the 6th century and was predominantly expanded during late 7th century Pallava period - Somaskanda sculptured panels of the Pallava period stand as a testament. Tamil Nadu has the lowest fertility rate in India of 1.7%, which is below the rate required for population sustainability. Bhairava is known as Vairavar in Tamil where he is often presented as a Grama Devata or folk deity who safeguards the devotee on all eight directions. After winning the Polygar wars, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency coterminous with the dominions of Nizam of Hyderabad. The Kalabhras, invaded and displaced the three Tamil kingdoms and ruled between the third and the seventh centuries CE of the Sangam period. This period was also that of the re-invigorated Hinduism during which temple building and religious literature were at their best.[4]. The twelve Azhwars (saint poets of Vaishnavite tradition) and sixty-three Nayanmars (saint poets of Shaivite tradition) are regarded as exponents of the bhakti tradition of Hinduism in South India. Sudalai Madan or Madan, is a regional Tamil male deity who is popular in South India, particularly Tamil Nadu. [38], The Lingam is a representation of the Hindu deity Shiva used for worship in Hindu temple. The earliest reference to Aiynar-Shasta includes two or more hero stones to hunting chiefs from the Arcot district in Tamil Nadu. 'Muni' means 'saint' and 'iswara' represents 'Shiva'. It eventually conquered the entire Tamil country (c. 1370 CE). Brihadshwara temple is an UNESCO Heritage Site under "Great Living Chola Temples. "[7] Another example is Annamalaiyar Temple located at the city of Tiruvannamalai and the Chidambaram Temple in the heart of the temple town of Chidambaram. three of the parties emerged prominent - Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) among Vanniyar, Puthiya Tamilagam among Devendrar and Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi among Paraiyar polled 12 percent vote in the 1999 Loksabha elections. The head of this Matha is the heredetary Acharya of the Mysore Royal Family. The Pallavas were replaced by the Cholas as the dominant kingdom in the 10th century C.E and they in turn were replaced by Pandyas in the 13th century CE with their capital as Madurai. The growth rates have been … [43] K. A. Nilakanta Sastri (1963:57-58) thinks that Pallavas adopted the Ganesa motif from Chalukyas. The Kanchi Matha serves as the foremost smartha institution in the state, Kanchi Matha's official history states that it was founded by Adi Sankara of Kaladi, and its history traces back to the fifth century BCE. [42] Ganesa is the first son of Shiva and is given the primary importance in all Shiva temples with all worship starting from him. Pudukkottai remained as a princely state. With the decline of the Cholas between 1230 and 1280 CE, the Pandyas rose to prominence once again, under Maravarman Sundara Pandya and his younger brother, the celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan. Worship of these deities is oftentimes seen as the modern continuation of the Dravidian folk religion followed before the Indo-Aryan arrival into Indian Subcontinent. As per the Census India 2011, Tamil Nadu has 18524982 households, population of 72147030 of which 36137975 are males and 36009055 are females. [44] During the 7th century, Vatapi Ganapati idol was brought from Badami (Vatapi - Chalukya capital) by With a total of 72,147,030 people living in the state, Tamil Nadu is ranked at 6th in terms of state-wise population in India. As per 2011 Census Tamil nadu population religion wise, Hinduism is the largest religion with 63 million - 87.5%, followed by Muslim with 5.8%, Christianity with 6%. Appar, one of the early Saivite saint of the 7th century, gives evidence of this knowledge of puranic episodes relating to Lingothbhavar form of Shiva while Tirugnana Sambandar refers this form of Shiva as the nature of light that could not be comprehended by Brahma and Vishnu. Ayyanar (Tamil: ஐயனார்) is worshipped as a guardian deity predominantly in Tamil Nadu and Tamil villages in Sri Lanka. His name was derived as a result of his association with the southern city of Madurai as a protector of the city. Tamil Nadu Population Every Year Population of Madras Presidency in 1871 Census of India – 33,308,225 Population of Madras Presidency in 1881 Census of India – 31,170,631 Population of Tamil speakers in 1951 Census: 26,546,764 (7.43% of total Indian population) Tamil Nadu Population 2019 –86.3712 Million. British colonial rule led to the emergence of Chennai, the capital and largest city in Tamil Nadu. [46] Tolkappiyam, possibly the most ancient of the extant Sangam works, dated between the 3rd century BCE and 5th century CE glorified Murugan, " the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent," and " the favoured god of the Tamils.". It is currently headed by Sri Arunagirinatha Gnanasambantha Desika Paramacharya. Local legend states the Tamil word Pillayar splits into Pillai and yaar meaning who is this son, but scholars believe it is derived from the Sanskrit word pulisara meaning elephant. In Chola times Bhairava is referred as Bikshadanar, a mendicant, and the image can be found in most Chola temples.[65]. The Hayagriva idol worshipped here is said to be handed down from Vedanta Desika.[21]. Ahobila Mutt (also called Ahobila Matam) is a Vadakalai Sri Vaishnava religious institution established 600 years ago at Ahobilam in India by Athivan Satakopa Svami (originally known as Srinivasacharya). [22][23][24] Athivan Sathakopa, a Vadakalai Brahmin,[25] who was a great grand disciple of Vedanta Desika[26][27] and a sishya of Brahmatantra Swatantra Jiyar of Parakala Mutt,[28] founded and established the Muth, based on the Pancharatra tradition. Tamil is the official state language, spoken by the majority of people, along with a number of smaller languages Kannada, Malayalam, and Telugu. [61] Unlike Nataraja, which is a Chola development, Somaskanda was prominent even during the Pallava period much earlier to Cholas. In the late 18th century, the western parts of Tamil Nadu, came under the dominions of Hyder Ali and later Tipu Sultan, particularly with their victory in the Second Anglo-Mysore War. [56] The image depicts Shiva as a teacher of yoga, music, and wisdom, and giving exposition on the shastras (vedic texts) to his disciples. Composers of Tevaram - the Tamil saint poets of 7th century namely Appar, Tirugnana Sambandar and Sundarar with the 9th-century poet Manickavasagar, the composer of Tiruvacakam were saints of Shaivism. Hinduism is the largest religion in Tamil Nadu. The total muslim population 4.2 million is … Vishnu is either worshipped directly or in the form of his ten avatara, most famous of whom are Rama and Krishna. km) 480 Literates 40524545 TAMIL-NADU ke provincial symbols. This is true of most States. Chennai is known as the Detroit of South Asia for its vehicle industry and is known for some of the best hospitals. He is considered to be the son of Shiva and Parvati. It reads "Ayanappa; a shrine to Cattan." 48.4% of the state’s population lives in urban areas. A number of political parties in Tamil Nadu, such as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) owe their origins to the Self-respect movement,[75] the latter a 1972 breakaway from the DMK. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.[6]. The Mutt got the name "Parakala" by the grace of Tirumangai Alvar also known as Parakalan. In 2011, population density for Tamil Nadu was 555 people per square kilometer. Because the Kalabhras gave protection to Jains and perhaps Buddhists, too, some have concluded that they were anti-Hindu, although this latter view is disputed. This trend is set to accelerate. Dept. The state adds over 1.2 million people to its current population every year. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The second-largest city in Tami Nadu by population is Coimbatore with approximately 2.7 million people and a population density of 601 people per square kilometer. By the 9th century CE, during the times of the second Chola monarch Aditya I, his son Parantaka I, Parantaka Chola II itself the Chola empire had expanded into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as a notable power in south Asia. Tamil Nadu is home to over 30,000 Hindu temples. Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, atheism, agnosticism, gnosticism among others;[33][34][35][36] and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. Tamil Nadu is the eleivent lairgest state in Indie bi aurie an the seivent maist populous state in Indie. The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were most prominent of them all in the 17th century. He is worshiped as a family deity in most Shaivite families. 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST) Other Backward Classes (OBCs) form 68% of Tamil nadu population. Madurai is Tamil Nadu’s third-largest city with a population of 1.7 million people. The state covers an area of 130,058 km sq. [49] The idea emerged from deity residing in a pillar and later visualised as Shiva emerging from the lingam[40] The lingothbhavar image can be found in the first precinct around the sanctum in the wall exactly behind the image of Shiva. Ahobila Mutt's Balaji Mandir Pune, Calendar - The calendar mentions Ahobila Mutt disciples celebrating Krishna Jayanti as "Pancharatra Sri Jayanti". The Nemili city is divided into 15 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The total number of Tamil Hindus as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168[2] which forms 87.58% of the total popualation of Tamil Nadu. [51][52][53] The form is present in most Shiva temples in South India, and is the main deity in the famous temple at Chidambaram. In Ramanathapuram Municipality, Female Sex Ratio is of 988 against state average of 996. "These Muslim invasions triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire in the Deccan. State in India. Only four States among those with a population exceeding 20 million in 2001 - Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab - report a decline in population sex ratios between 1991 and 2001. Most of them came from the Tamil region and the last of them lived in the 9th century CE. The period started with the rivalry between the Pandyas and the Pallavas, which in turn caused the revival of the Cholas. The decade that saw the largest amount of growth was from 1971 to 1981 with a population growth rate of 22.3%. Hinduism is the largest religion of Tamil Nadu. She is associated with many other Hindu goddesses like Durga, Bhadrakali, Sati, Rudrani, Parvati and Chamunda. [50], Nataraja or Nataraj, The Lord (or King) of Dance; (Tamil: கூத்தன் (Kooththan)) is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the cosmic dancer Koothan who performs his divine dance to destroy a weary universe and make preparations for god Brahma to start the process of creation. 42-43, at. Tamil Nadu borders Andhra Pradesh to its south, Karnataka to its southeast, and Kerala to its east. Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு) is one of the states in India.The capital of this state is Chennai. It comprises 51,837,507 literates, with a literacy rate of 80.3%. It represents the Tamil-speaking area of what was formerly the Madras Presidency of British India. He is one of the 21 associate folk-deities of Ayyanar and is hence one of the so-called Kaval Deivams of the Tamils. Perumal and his consort Lakshmi are represented in various forms or avatars in Perumal temples in Tamil Nadu. A steeply classified class structure existed in Tamil Nadu from around 2000 years because of the correlation in the form of cultivation, population and centralization of political system. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. The majority of the Tamil Nadu population is comprised of Tamils, speakers of the traditional Dravidian language. 48% of the population lives in urban spots, one of the highest in the nation. 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